Pain Management

Symptom Management
Common Symptoms:
Bowel Management
Nausea and Vomiting
Terminal Phase
Changing Awareness

Altered Elimination
Respiratory Changes
Agitation or Restlessness
Signs of Impending Death
Caregiver Support

The Terminal Phase of Illness

Pain continues to be treated aggressively throughout the dying process. Untreated pain, in addition to causing the patient and caregivers great distress, drains energy needed to successfully complete their life’s journey meaningfully. Thorough assessment of pain becomes important, as the patient may not be able to communicate verbally. At this time the medication profile should be reviewed, and unnecessary medications such a laxatives or antibiotics may be discontinued. If the oral route is no longer viable, the sublingual or rectal route can be used. Most needed medications come in liquid form such as Roxanol, a liquid form of morphine, or are available as suppositories.