Pain Management
Definitions of Pain
Common Barriers
Important Terms
Morphine Myths
Duty to Relieve Pain
Five Principles
Fifth Vital Sign
Pain Assessment
Begin with the patient
Types of pain

Symptom Management
Five Pain Management Principles

Pain assessment and re-assessment is vital for pain management

Use appropriate non-pharmacological pain relief measures as well as pharmacological measures.
Examples of non-pharmacological measures are:

Positioning for comfort

Massage therapy

Therapeutic Touch

Application of heat or cold

Music therapy

Spiritual counseling

Patient and family/caregiver education
Patient and family/caregiver empowerment is a fundamental tool in pain management. Teaching theuse of pain scales, medication use and scheduling, signs and symptoms of the disease progression — all of these measures enhance pain management and help to ensure patient comfort.

Ongoing review and updating of a personalized plan of care

Team approach
Collaboration is essential for pain management and in end of life care. The team should consist of:



Counselors/social workers


Additionally, the pharmacist, other therapists such as music and speech therapists, dieticians and spiritual advisors can be included.